Gustave Flaubert and Induced Feeling States
Dr. Lindenman presented this publication at the Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Study Center and at the National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis.
Gustave Flaubert is recognized as the father of the modern novel,
and deservedly so. This paper first examines features of Flaubert’s
psychic development: namely, the sado-masochistic features of his
relationship both to his mother and father. These dynamics were
apparent to Flaubert himself as revealed in his letters. These same
dynamics then become the base of his relationship to the world and
therefore to the reader.
One feature of his writing that reveals these difficulties is his
use of certain narrative and stylistic techniques of his own
invention. In large part, he revolutionized the role of the
narrator. No longer would the reader be able to trust in the account
of people and events in the novel. Things were no longer given as
“true” but rather as dependent on some perspective or other. The
Flaubertian narrator would slip in and out of the consciousness of
the characters and thus could no longer be relied upon for a
trustworthy account of events. Perhaps most insidious in these
procedures was the narrator’s ability to induce a variety of feeling
states in the reader. This paper examines the disturbance in the
reader’s ability to know how to feel as well as how to think.
From Dreams to Creativity (PDF)
History abounds in creative productions that first occurred
as visual symbols in dreams (Asimov, 1982). Psychoanalytic
writings too, credit dreams with a special value in genesis
of creativity (Freud, 1900; Blum, 1976; Noy, 1979). How does
unconscious symbolism of dreams, a function of wish
fulfillment oriented primary process not intended for
communication, come to be employed in service of creative
(communicable) pursuits within the secondary process
adaptation oriented realm? Our study of dream drawings and
dream art aspires to shed light on the progressive interplay
between primary and secondary processes (Freud, 1938;
Arieti, 1980; Rose, 1980) and symbolisms, likely
instrumental in such transformation. The study is part of a
psychoanalytic investigation of creativity in relation to
personality development, including both creative-adaptive
and maladaptive solutions (Papiasvili et al. , 2012).
Dream Art (Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4) courtesy of Mgr. Marie Supova, President, Society of Sigmund Freud Society, Pribor, Czech Republic; and the participating artists.
Download the full paper.
Dream Art Images
Figure 1: "Who am I"? # 460.
Figure 2: #468
Figure 3: #453
Figure 4: #463,
as referenced in the text.
Graziella Magherini, M.D., the President of the
IAAP, who resides and works in Florence, Italy, conducted extensive research on
tourists who visited Florence — with all its art
treasures — and who suffered a series of sudden
attacks of acute mental suffering, lasting
from a few hours to a few days.
The affliction ranged from panic attacks with
physical discomfort, such as fear of fainting,
suffocating, dying or "going mad," vertigo and/or
tachycardia, as well as a need for a friend or a
company of a loved one, — to bouts of depression,
sudden yearning for or compulsion to return home,
feeling of alienation, and the extremely
unpleasant sensation that the world has become
threatening and even hostile.
Dr. Magherini coined this phenomenon
as Stendhal Syndrome, prompted by
Stendhal's reports of suffering upon leaving the
Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence. According to
Dr. Magherini, Stendhal was the first traveler to
break with the conventions that had defined the
cultural relationship between a visitor and a
country-as-museum. With Stendhal, this wall comes
down, and Italy, the museum, comes alive with its
Read more on Stendhal syndrome and beyond:
- Graziella Magherini (1989, 1995, 2003). La Sindrome di Stendhal. Firenze. [Stendhal syndrome. The Malaise of the traveler before the greatness of the art.] Milan, Italy: Ponte alle Grazie.
- Graziella Magherini (2007). Mi sono innamorato di una statua : oltre la sindrome di Stendhal. [I've fallen in love with a statue: Beyond the Stendhal syndrome.] Florence, Italy : Nicomp L.E.
- Art Attack: A beginner's guide to Stendhal Syndrome, by Dr. Mark Griffiths